00155VBy H. Horn
from "The Project Gutenberg e-Book of Yachting," Vol. 2

An exceptional year, alike in regard to weather and sport, for not within living memory has there been so fine a spring, summer and autumn, and there is no previous record of such a sequence of eventful and stirring racing.

It is highly gratifying that sport so truly national in character as yacht racing enlisted more general interest during the past season than has ever previously been the case; in fact, it can further be said that the doings of the 'Britannia,' 'Valkyrie,' 'Satanita,' 'Calluna,' 'Navahoe,' and 'Iverna' arrested world-wide attention.

Iverna 1890. (John Jameson, Esq.)
'Iverna,' 1890. (John Jameson, Esq.)

Lord Dunraven's commission, given in the fall of 1892, for a new 'Valkyrie' of about double the rating of his first cutter, heralded a revival of big-cutter racing, and later on yachting enthusiasts were almost delirious with joy when authentic announcements were made that the Prince of Wales had given orders for a sister ship to the 'Valkyrie,' and that a big cutter was to be built at Southampton for Mr. A. D. Clarke, and one on the Clyde for a syndicate of Scotch yachtsmen.

Mr. G. L. Watson had a free hand in designing the 'Valkyrie' and 'Britannia,' which were built side by side at Partick by Messrs. Henderson, and parenthetically it may be said they fitted out, moored together, and kept singularly close company in all their matches. The 'Satanita,' which was designed by Mr. J. Soper to sail on a 94-feet water-line, was built by Fay & Co., while Mr. W. Fife, junr. was responsible for the 'Calluna's' model, and the vessel was built by Messrs. J. & A. Inglis of Pointhouse, Glasgow, in an incredibly short space of time. Although very certain that the 'Iverna' would be quite outbuilt by the new ships, Mr. John Jameson determined to bring her out, and 'Iverna's' well-tried antagonist, the 'Meteor,' was under orders to join the fleet later on.

Lines and midship section of 'Iverna.'
Iverna 1890. (John Jameson, Esq.)
Dimensions, &c.: Length (on L.W.L.), 83.50 ft.; beam, extreme, 19 ft.; depth, 10.70 ft.;
tonnage, registered, 84.40 tons; tonnage, y. m. 152 tons; Y.R.A. rating, 118 tons.
Designed by Alexander Richardson for John Jameson, Esq.

Just before the advent of the new year, Lord Dunraven's challenge for the new 'Valkyrie' to sail a series of races for the America Cup was accepted by the New York Yacht Club, and about the same time came a notification from Mr. Carroll, a prominent American yachtsman, that he was having a sloop (the 'Navahoe') built by Messrs. Herreshoff, with which he intended to challenge for the Royal Victoria Gold Cup, and also make an attempt to win back the Cape May and Brenton Reef Cups...

The big-cutter contests were of such exceptional interest that a review of the season would not be complete without a history of all the races sailed, and the opportunity is embraced of embodying many unreported incidents in the subjoined résumé of the first-class racing.

Thursday, May 25: Royal Thames Yacht Club

There was a thoroughly representative assemblage of yachtsmen afloat the first day the big cutters had racing flags lashed up, and it may be said that never during the half-century the Royal Thames has been an institution has a more critical company, collectively, been present at a river match of the premier metropolitan club. A white haze was hanging about the lower Thames on the morning of Thursday, May 25, and when the 'Valkyrie,' 'Britannia,' 'Calluna' and 'Iverna' were ready to answer the starting gun, a breeze from the west-north-west of balloon topsail strength was blowing.


The quartet began the race at 12.5, and went reaching down the Lower Hope, with flowing sheets and carrying a swirl of ebb-tide with them. 'Valkyrie' had made a clever start, and keeping to the Essex side was first to square away in Sea Reach, and get spinnaker set to port. 'Britannia' had been edged off to the heart of the fairway, but about Thames Haven she was drawn in across 'Valkyrie's' wake, and straightened on a down-river course directly she had angled the latter's wind. 'Valkyrie's' first racing burst was satisfactory, inasmuch as she kept pride of place for about 14 miles, albeit she never held more than a clear length's lead of 'Britannia.'

About a couple of miles below Southend the wind had a hank off the sands, and, with square canvas gathered and sheets trimmed in a little, 'Britannia' raced up broad on the weather beam of 'Valkyrie,' while wide away 'Calluna' was booming along with a rally of wind aft, and for a few minutes certainly led the fleet. On an easy reach 'Britannia' gave evidence that she had the foot of the sister ship, yet it was a marvellously close race, the Prince of Wales's cutter drawing by the wind round the Mouse at 2.10 with about three lengths lead of 'Valkyrie,' while the 'Calluna' was only 1 min. 11 secs. and 'Iverna' 2 mins. 5 secs. astern of the leader.

With a beat back over a lee tide in perspective the lead round the lightship was an immense advantage, and, in order to keep weather gauge, 'Britannia' was kept shooting so long that 'Valkyrie' had no chance of a successful hug, and it would have been suicidal for her to have turned about in the body of the tide. The alternative was sailing hard to get the wind clear to leeward; but when 'Valkyrie' came round outside the edge of the tide rift, 'Britannia,' drawing a foot less water, was able to cast about dead in the wind's eye of her rival. A grand breeze squeezing trial went on right up Sea Reach, 'Valkyrie,' although the quicker of the pair in stays, getting now and again a staggering weather bower. It was a racing treat, however, and, despite the duel, the 'Calluna' and 'Iverna' were getting a hollow beating.

The breeze freshened with the flood, and from off Shellhaven 'Britannia,' which was a bare hundred yards to windward of 'Valkyrie,' was, on starboard, pointing clear of the Blyth, and did not therefore follow her rival on an inshore cast. After passing the Lower Hope point, sheets were checked, jib topsails and balloon staysails were set, and, with a puffy breeze broad off the Essex side, they went straight up the fairway pushing on a big bow wave. 'Britannia' going thus free was dropping 'Valkyrie' a trifle, yet the race looked open until 'Valkyrie's' bowsprit snapped short off close to the stem head.

Royal Thames Yacht Club
  1 Britannia 5.21.09
  2 Iverna 5.25.38
  3 Valkyrie 5.27.13
  4 Calluna DNF

She was eased in to the weather shore, and her topmast saved in a wonderful way, and eventually she followed 'Britannia' home. 'Calluna' had split her big jib across the diagonal seam in Sea Reach, but got another set, and looked likely—consequent on 'Valkyrie's' mishap—to gain second honours. An attempt, however, to pass inside the Ovens ended by 'Calluna' sticking deep in the mud, and 'Iverna' got home soon enough to save her time on 'Valkyrie.'
This, the first race, was a fair trial to leeward and to windward, and it showed 'Britannia' and 'Valkyrie' to be wonderfully evenly matched, while 'Calluna's' début was disappointing.

Saturday, May 27: Royal London Yacht Club

The valedictory match on the river on May 27 proved the best racing test, and furnished the most stirring sport of the trio. 'Valkyrie' was ready to join in, and the fleet was similarly constituted to the opening day. The race was under the Royal London burgee, and was sailed in gloomy weather and a smart north-east breeze. A sensation was served up before the contest proper had been started, and directly after the heavily freighted official steamer had got down to the Lower Hope, through 'Calluna's' mast breaking off short as a Jersey cabbage-stalk. With her whole canvas pile carrying away over the side it was feared some of the crew might be entangled; but luckily everything went clear and no one was hurt.

Britannia and Valkyrie by William L. WyllieIt was 12.45 before the Commodore started the race, and at the time the Hope was full of trading craft. A bulky hopper barred 'Britannia's' way, and both 'Valkyrie' and 'Iverna' had to be shoved up in the wind; and while the two last named were hovering, 'Britannia' stood away for the Kent side into the full scour of the ebb, and came off on the starboard tack in weather berth. 'Valkyrie' had to short tack at the top of Sea Reach to clear her wind, and as a long leg could be made, 'Britannia' reached away with the lead, 'Valkyrie,' half a dozen lengths astern, pointing high for her weather quarter. The wind was puffy and both dropped 'Iverna,' but the two leaders were sailing a grand race, and made a long stretch as far as the East River Middle without breaking port tack.

Hereabout, however, the wind suddenly shortened on them from the eastward, and the 'Valkyrie' most unluckily was thrown dead under the lee of 'Britannia.' With the tide soaking them bodily to windward, they both fetched under the Nore Sand, which had to be stood from for water, and by short turnings they then made a fine race to the Nore Lightship. Here they got in deep water, and after a short hitch and a rap-full stretch to clear had failed, 'Valkyrie' went in for short boards of about twenty seconds, and ended by being given lee helm directly she was full. This meant that 'Britannia,' being slower in stays, had not got sheets in before she wanted to go about again, and she would to a certainty have been weathered by 'Valkyrie,' before getting as far on as the West Oaze, had not the Prince of Wales's cutter been treated to longer boards. 'Britannia' then got away and weathered the Mouse, after as fine a display of short tacking as has ever been seen on the river, with a lead of 39 seconds, and the duel had let 'Iverna' get within 10 minutes of the leader.

They ran back against the tide with spinnakers to port; but it was dead running, and 'Valkyrie,' edging in to the Maplins, got through into first place above the Admiralty mile. The wind then came off shore, and 'Britannia' at once began to luff in.

Royal London Yacht Club
  1 Iverna 6.10.20
  2 Britannia 6.16.19
  3 Valkyrie 6.19.42

'Valkyrie' was determined to keep her weather wind clear, the pair had a match up to Southend, and on keeping away both touched the ground, the 'Britannia' bumping three times hard on the north head of Leigh Sand. The Prince of Wales's cutter, however, keeping wide, slipped past 'Valkyrie' about the Chapman, drew to, and came fair ahead. The pair kept up a grand race on the Essex side of the river, but 'Iverna,' greatly favoured by the wind and her opponents' jockeying, had got within a couple of minutes of the leaders when off Holehaven. Spinnakers were carried through the Hope, and a grand race finished with a free reach from Coalhouse Point home, 'Britannia' beating 'Valkyrie' by 73 seconds; but 'Iverna' won the prize by time.

June 10: Royal Thames Yacht Club

The First Race Of The Royal Thames Yacht Club: The IvernaA very fine open-water match was that of the Royal Thames Club on June 10 from the Nore round the back of the Goodwins to Dover. The usual tale of five of the national rig and the schooner 'Amphitrite' made up the entry, and all mustered at the rendezvous. It was a cheerless morning, the sky being heavy and of slaty hue, whilst a brisk north-easter blew cold off the water. The schooner had a yard-topsail set, 'Calluna' her No. 2 jackyarder, and the 'Britannia,' 'Valkyrie,' 'Satanita,' and 'Iverna' their jibheaders. Reef-tackles were ready to pull earings down, but the breeze veered to the east north-east and did not harden. They had a beat to the Tongue with a swinging weather tide, 'Britannia' made a capital start, and twice crossed ahead of 'Valkyrie'; but exactly half an hour after the start, off the 'West Oaze,' 'Britannia' found her sister marching clear ahead.

'Calluna' had been in Tilbury Dock since her inglorious performance at Harwich; she was there lightened of tons of dead weight, and the syndicate ship was very much livelier, and infinitely more able at breeze squeezing; while the turnings were too short for 'Satanita' to be cutting a dash. 'Britannia' jumped up on 'Valkyrie' every time the long leg on port came, and at the entrance of the Alexandra Channel 'Valkyrie,' on the bearing tack, had to come about under the lee bow, the Prince of Wales's cutter thus becoming 'bell wether.' 'Valkyrie' stayed for 'Britannia,' which was however on port, but the former was clear enough ahead before getting abreast of the beacons on the Girdler. Royal Thames Yacht Club Regatta Finish Britannia Valkyrie 1893The two leading boats worked shorter tacks than the rest down the Alexandra to the southern pitch of the Shingles, and they were consequently getting picked up a little by 'Calluna' and 'Satanita.'

After a long leg on port, the last tack was made for weathering distance of the Tongue Lightship, and on passing this mark after a beat of 19 miles with a weather tide, the 'Valkyrie' led 'Britannia' 2 mins., 'Calluna' 7 mins. 30 secs., 'Satanita' 9 mins. 30 secs., and 'Iverna' 15 mins. 30 secs. It may be said that the distance was covered by the leader in 2 hrs. 18 mins. After allowing for a sweep of fair tide they had a broad reach off to the North Sandhead, and although 'Britannia' raced up on 'Valkyrie,' she stopped directly she began to yaw about on the leader's quarter sea, and was half a minute astern at the North Goodwin Lightship. 'Satanita's' was a remarkable piece of sailing, as according to the 'distance table' it is 14¾ miles from the Tongue Lightship to the North Sandhead, and she was timed officially as taking just over one hour to do the distance; it should be added that the tide was running about two knots, and setting under the weather quarter, whilst it is worthy of note that between the marks 'Satanita' had two luffs with 'Calluna' and shifted her jibheaded topsail for a jackyarder. In a run to the East Goodwin main booms were carried to starboard, and 'Britannia,' running the nearer to the sands, was placed to cover 'Valkyrie,' when an inevitable gybe came off at the East Goodwin.

Royal Thames Yacht Club
  1 Britannia 4.58.05
  2 Valkyrie 4.58.22
  3 Satanita 5.03.57
  4 Calluna 5.05.31
  5 Iverna 5.16.37

'Valkyrie' came over all standing just after passing the lightship, and unluckily for her the parts of the mainsheet got under the counter. 'Britannia' was also gybed in a hurry, and, covering her opponent, she slipped past into pride of place, while 'Valkyrie' was unable to pull her boom in and luff; oddly enough, however, 'Britannia' was in the same mess as her sister, and it was some time ere both had mainsheets running free through the blocks. With the North Sea tide swinging along hot, a fine head of speed was kept up, and about the Calliper head-sails were taking well and spinnakers were got in. Although the wind was quarterly from the Southsand Lightship home, 'Britannia' made but a very trifling gain on 'Valkyrie,' and, according to official clocking, crossed the line with a lead of 17 secs., and, having 13 secs. to allow, thus won with 3 secs. to spare—a remarkable finish of a grand race. 'Satanita' was 5 mins. 52 secs. astern of the leader, 'Calluna' 7 mins. 26 secs., and 'Iverna' 18 mins. 32 secs.

June 12: Royal Cinque Ports Yacht Club

A smart easterly wind on the morning of the cross Channel match from Dover to Boulogne very naturally gave rise to anticipations that the time record for the course would be broken. Valkyrie, Vendetta and Britannia in collisionThe breeze came unsteady, however, and put a veto on the accomplishment of a fast journey either way, whilst a serious collision at the start, in which the 'Valkyrie,' 'Britannia,' and 'Vendetta' were involved, had the effect of utterly spoiling the race. A fleet of eight responded to the starting gun—namely, 'Britannia,' 'Valkyrie,' 'Calluna,' 'Iverna,' 'Mabel,' 'Lais,' 'Vendetta,' and 'Varuna'—and they ran in close flight for the line before a north-east wind, with booms to starboard and having a gybe to make immediately after crossing. <'Vendetta' got away first and was reaching off on her course when 'Valkyrie's' bowsprit end took the 40 on the port quarter and forced her round until she filled on the starboard tack, her topmast being carried away as she was slewing. There was not much room between the outer flagboat and the port side of 'Valkyrie,' but 'Britannia's' helm was drawn down—after gybing—to give her a chance of finding a passage. She fouled the mark, however, and through 'Valkyrie's' way being deadened when she fouled 'Vendetta,' 'Britannia' had the alternative of steadying her helm and giving 'Valkyrie' a sliding blow, or of keeping it a little a-lee and crashing right through the 40. The 'Britannia's' helm was eased, and she put her bowsprit inside 'Valkyrie's' rigging, while 'Vendetta,' after getting her bowsprit broken off by 'Britannia,' got some of the gear foul and dropped alongside the Prince of Wales's vessel, with her counter up about level with the big cutter's main rigging, and the stem even with the taffrail. The three vessels, locked together, sidled away towards shore, 'Britannia,' listing to the wind, pressed her mainsail on to 'Vendetta's' port crosstree, and the sail split up from boom to gaff. The trio laid thus entangled for ten minutes, but meantime 'Valkyrie's' crew had chopped away at 'Britannia's' bowsprit and headgear; eventually the spar broke, and then the three vessels at once got clear.

Royal Cinque Ports Yacht Club
  1 Britannia 4.22.09
  2 Calluna 4.32.36
  3 Iverna 4.38.10
  4 Valkyrie DNF

Meanwhile 'Calluna' and 'Iverna' had been racing away for the French coast with a fine leading wind, and twelve minutes after they had crossed the line 'Valkyrie' started in pursuit. The wind was shy and very puffy after getting inside Grisnez, and 'Valkyrie' picked up six minutes on 'Calluna,' which had beaten 'Iverna' only 3 mins. 45 secs. in going across, and 'Varuna,' the leading 40, by 24 mins. 'Calluna' hung on to her jackyard topsail in a wonderful way, as some of the puffs laid her over until the lee decks were full. 'Valkyrie' passed 'Iverna,' but 'Calluna' well kept her lead, the wind easting enough for all to fetch clean full home. 'Calluna' beat 'Valkyrie' by 5 mins. 27 secs., 'Iverna' by 8 mins. 52 secs., and 'Lais,' the first of the 40's, by 46 mins. 6 secs.

June 17: Royal Southern Yacht Club

There was a full muster of the heavy-weight cutters at the Royal Southern rendezvous, the club having a first-class match on June 17, the second day of its 'Jubilee' Regatta. 'Satanita's' light blue banner was carried nearer the water-level than in her previous racing essays, owing to the lower mast having been clipped 3 feet, and additional lead had been put on her keel. 'Britannia' had made good the damage sustained at Dover, and with 'Valkyrie,' 'Calluna,' and 'Iverna' the fleet was brought up to normal strength.

Royal Southern Yacht Club
  1 Valkyrie 6.11.17
  2 Britannia 6.16.56
  3 Satanita 6.29.03
  4 Iverna 7.14.36
  5 Calluna 7.14.52

It was a lovely morning, glorified by fervent sunshine, and softened by a gauzy haze, but a southerly chill was not strong enough to 'carry' the smoke of the starting gun, and the surface of the Solent looked smooth as burnished steel. With flying airs filling jackyard topsails, they started the race, and ere going half a mile 'Calluna' got aground on the Calshot Spit. 'Valkyrie' was lucky to strike the first of a gathering breeze, and went reaching fast from the fleet down the West Channel. She afterwards gave a fine display by the wind, and showed matchless form on a dead run. 'Valkyrie' eventually beat 'Britannia' by 5 mins. 32 secs., and 'Satanita' by 16 mins. 4 secs., 'Calluna' and 'Iverna' both being miles astern. 'Valkyrie's' was a good performance, but she was distinctly lucky in getting the first of the wind, and she likewise was kindly treated subsequently by Dame Fortune.

June 24: Royal Mersey Yacht Club

Royal Mersey Yacht Club Jubilee Regatta - Iverna 1893Rather singularly the Jubilee Regatta of the Royal Southern Club was followed by the Jubilee of the Royal Mersey; but the latter meeting, on June 24, did not open under such exhilarating influences as the Solent gathering, particulars having just come to hand of the 'Victoria' disaster in the Mediterranean, while the weather was dismally dull, and a tearing north-north-west wind blowing. Consequent on the prevailing stiff breeze an alternative course—three times round the Formby—had been plotted off overnight—probably not, however, from any tender consideration whether the racing vessels could cross the bar safely, the anxiety more likely being in regard to the Committee-boat and her freight.

The inside course was named on the day, but, in spite of foresight and precaution, the racing was disappointing. The 'Valkyrie,' which had come round from Cowes with her mainsail an underdeck passenger, could not get the sail bent owing to the rain and wind; then 'Calluna' got her anchor foul, and being 25 minutes late, did not start. 'Britannia' alone was near the line when the Blue Peter came down, yet she lost 1 min. 50 secs., while 'Satanita' came 2 mins. later, and 'Iverna' a minute after 'Satanita.' There was wind enough to warrant second earings being hardened down, all topmasts were housed, and with the tide flying to windward the ground was sidled over very fast. The start meant victory—barring accidents—in beating out of the narrow Mersey channel, and although 'Satanita' worked right up under 'Britannia,' she was kept safely pinned.

Royal Mersey Yacht Club
  1 Britannia 3.58.06
  2 Satanita 4.00.25
  3 Iverna  

There was a short jump of sea, and the two new ships were giving a free display of the fore body, smashing the tidal combers into blinding clouds of sea dust. 'Satanita' had a rare drilling from 'Britannia,' and although she also ran the faster, she could not get through in such a limited stretch of water. Thus the game was played to the end, it being a flog out from New Brighton to the Formby, and a run back each round. Had the 'Satanita' got her opponent's start, she would probably have beaten the Prince of Wales's cutter fully 5 mins., as in such a breeze she was clearly the faster to windward. 'Iverna' was very soon done with, and at the finish 'Britannia' finished 2 mins. 19 secs. before 'Satanita.'

July 1st: Royal Northern Yacht Club

The Royal Northern Regatta opened on July 1 with a piping breeze strong enough for slab reefs to be pulled down; before noon, however, jackyard topsails were wanted,ROTHESAY Royal Northern Yacht Club Regatta - 1893 and calms and partial breezes made tiresome work afterward, flukes being as plentiful as motes in a sunbeam. The 'Calluna' put in an appearance, and when viewed broadside on her big sail-plan gave her quite an over-hatted look. 'Satanita,' 'Britannia,' 'Valkyrie,' and 'Iverna' all made their number, and the match commenced in a rush of wind, 'Satanita' clearing out of Rothesay Bay faster than any steamboat ever left it. The Southampton boat was at the head of affairs for some time, but after some fluking 'Valkyrie' led. At the end of the second round, however, 'Satanita,' through a sheer slice of luck, got 3 mins. ahead of 'Britannia,' and as it was then 4.30 and clock calm in the Clyde, it was thought the match would be stopped.

Royal Northern Yacht Club
  1 Britannia 9.02.35
  2 Valkyrie 9.04.33
  3 Satanita 9.06.03
  4 Calluna 9.06.20
  5 Iverna DNF

The Committee, however, wanted the distance done, and 'Britannia,' being the faster in light airs, got home late in the evening 1 min. 49 secs, before 'Satanita,' 'Valkyrie,' which was nearly 20 mins. astern of the latter at the end of the first round, getting in 1 min. 32 secs, after, and saving her time for second prize. The 'Calluna's' wide wings did not seem to help her as they should have done in flaws and catspaws.

July 5: Mudhook Yacht Club

The G. L. Watson designed Britannia was built by Messrs D. & W. Henderson in 1893 for H.R.H. the Prince of Wales3The Mudhookers opened the ball on July 5 at Hunter's Quay, and a very capital sailing programme was put forward by the exclusive 'forty' which constitute the club, the leading event being a prize value 100£ for big cutters. With 'Britannia' and 'Calluna' disabled, the affair virtually resolved itself into a match between 'Valkyrie' and 'Satanita,' although the 'Iverna' was a starter. It was imperative that the helmsmen should be amateurs, and Mr. W. G. Jameson shipped for the day as timoneer of 'Satanita,' Lord Dunraven having Mr. George Watson to relieve him on 'Valkyrie.' Starting with a free sheet in a smart breeze, 'Satanita' went away so fast that 'Valkyrie' looked likely to have a stern chase; but the wind got baffling, in beating up the Firth from Ascog 'Valkyrie' worked up, and off Dunoon, in standing off on port, she had to come round under the lee bow of her rival.

Mudhook Yacht Club
  1 Valkyrie 6.06.05
  2 Satanita 6.07.43
  3 Iverna 6.25.41

A wind-jamming trial then followed, and 'Satanita' either sidled away and dropped down on 'Valkyrie,' or the latter ate up under her rival, as the end of 'Satanita's' gaff hooked 'Valkyrie's' topmast shrouds, and Lord Dunraven's cutter was towed along for some minutes. After getting clear, it was thought 'Valkyrie's' topmast was slightly sprung, and there were cross protests at the finish of the round. A desperately close race was sailed on the second turn round the course, and 'Satanita,' which was only 27 secs. ahead at the finish, got beaten on time by 'Valkyrie.' 'Iverna' finished 26 secs. after the leader.

July 7: Clyde Corinthian Yacht Club

Amateur helmsmen were in request for the big ships on Clyde Corinthian Club day, when the 'Britannia,' 'Valkyrie,' 'Satanita,' and 'Iverna' responded to the starting gun.

Clyde Corinthian Yacht Club
  1 Valkyrie 6.28.45
  2 Britannia 6.29.41
  3 Iverna 6.30.36
  4 Satanita 6.33.10

The weather was very uncertain, the breezes being so light that only one round of the course could be sailed. 'Valkyrie' was the lucky ship as she rounded the Kilcreggan flagboat, two and a half miles from the Commodore, last boat. Standing off in the Firth, along the edge of a flaw, whilst her opponents were lying becalmed, she tacked into a breezy lane, and, passing 'Iverna,' 'Satanita,' and 'Britannia' in turn, carried her way up to the line, getting the winning gun 30 secs. before 'Britannia' struggled through, and 2 mins. 15 secs. in advance of 'Satanita.' The 'Valkyrie' was steered by her owner, the 'Britannia' by Mr. W. G. Jameson, and the 'Satanita' by Mr. R. Ure.

July 8: Royal Clyde Yacht Club

RACING YACHTS CALLUNA SATANITA IVERNA & BRITANNIAA more unfavourable racing day than that which opened the Royal Club Regatta has never been experienced even on the unutterably fluky Firth. Sudden spurts of wind, calms, a very long spell of what was quite a deluge of rain, deafening thunder, blinding lightning and depressing gloom, made up the sample of weather vouchsafed to the competitors during the time that the 'sport' was progressing. The big cutters mustered in full force, and had a light easterly breeze, which gave a reach down the Clyde. Just before the start, 'Britannia' on the port tack, with the wind pretty broad abeam, made 'Calluna,' which had run down from the eastward with boom over the port side, come round; and this was deemed cause for 'Calluna' to pursue a protest, on the ground that a breach of the rules of the road had been committed. 'Valkyrie,' too, made a mark of 'Britannia,' the latter getting the stem, and sustaining damage to the port bulwarks aft and the taffrail.

After an unsatisfactory start, 'Britannia' and 'Satanita' went round the Ascog mark together, but just as the latter was stepping out in style, and apparently in first place, her bobstay pendant burst and the bowsprit broke off short to the stem-head.

Royal Clyde Yacht Club
  1 Valkyrie 7.33.50
  2 Calluna 8.39.22
  3 Satanita DNF
  4 Iverna DNF
  5 Britannia DSQ

Topsails had been shifted, as there was a prospect of a strong breeze, but the outcome was a tempest without a rattle of wind. 'Britannia' sailed in fine form, and simply lost her opponents directly 'Satanita's' accident had put that boat out of the way. It was a wretchedly poor time, however, and, thanks to not a little good fortune, 'Britannia' beat 'Valkyrie' by 41 mins. 40 secs., and 'Calluna' by 62 mins. 17 secs., while 'Iverna' gave up.
Protests were lodged against 'Britannia' on behalf of both 'Calluna' and 'Valkyrie.' The 'Calluna's' objection was considered, and about midnight the Sailing Committee decided to disqualify the 'Britannia,' only one witness, be it said, from the last-named vessel having been called.

July 10: Royal Clyde Yacht Club

Royal Clyde Yacht Club
  1 Valkyrie 6.57.29
  2 Calluna 7.49.59
  3 Britannia 8.27.40
  4 Iverna DNF
  5 Satanita DNF

There was really not a semblance of racing on the second day of the Royal Clyde Regatta, which was the valedictory fixture in the so-called 'Clyde fortnight.' Flying chills and draughts out of every 'airt,' with long spells of calm, kept the vessels hanging about the lower part of the Firth until the shadows were well slanting eastward.

An evening breeze helped 'Valkyrie' home, but it took her nearly seven hours and a half to cover one half the course, and she finished 54 mins. 9 secs. before the 'Calluna,' 1 hr. 31 mins. 30 secs. before 'Britannia,' and about 2 hrs. 40 mins. before 'Satanita,' the last named taking 10 hrs. to cover 25 miles.

July 14: Royal Ulster Yacht Club


Inspiriting racing marked the opening of the Irish fixtures at Bangor, and the Royal Ulster Regatta attracted all the big cutters. The wind was fresh from the north-north-east, slab reefs were down in mainsails and sharp-headed topsails set. A thrilling and eventful contest followed a perfectly judged start, and 'Britannia,' 'Satanita,' and 'Valkyrie' formed first flight in a plain sail round the Lough as far as the South Briggs flagboat, where the last named lost her place through one of her hands getting knocked overboard in a gybe. At the same mark in the second round 'Britannia' got the inside turn, when the main boom had to come over; but 'Satanita' at once began to luff, and with mainsheet blocks together on both they went heading out in the Lough. Foot by foot 'Satanita' came up, off Ballyholme Bay she had ranged broad on the weather-beam of her rival, and was thus able to claim room at the home flagboat, which she luffed round with 5 secs. lead, and Jay then kept her shooting almost as long as she would to keep weather berth.

Royal Ulster Yacht Club
  1 Satanita 4.32.04
  2 Britannia 4.33.30
  3 Calluna 4.36.13
  4 Iverna 4.43.45
  5 Valkyrie 4.44.12

'Britannia' unluckily got her mainsheet jammed, and as she could not in consequence be sprung to the wind—at once—so high as 'Satanita,' she dropped under the lee quarter, and got a severe blanketing all the way up the Lough.
The pair sailed an exciting match round the rest of the course, and 'Satanita' travelling like a shooting star reached home winner with 5 secs. in hand. It may be said that the feat was accomplished in one third of the course, 16½ miles, and that she beat 'Britannia' 2 mins. 29 secs. in that distance, which was a very high tribute indeed to 'Satanita's' speed. 'Calluna' finished 7 mins. 19 secs. after the winner. 'Valkyrie' never regained any of the time lost in picking up the hand who got overboard.

July 15: Royal Ulster Yacht Club

The breeze steadied down during the dark hours, and the 'Valkyrie' had a day just to her liking. 'Iverna's' well-known racing banner was missed for the first time in the season, owing to her rudder-head being twisted. Spectators were treated to a magnificent light-weather match between the 'Valkyrie' and 'Britannia.'

Royal Ulster Yacht Club
  1 Valkyrie 4.52.04
  2 Britannia 4.54.21
  3 Calluna 5.07.43
  4 Satanita 5.19.23

The former took the lead directly after the flash of the starting gun, but she did not seem to ghost along in the usual peerless style. 'Britannia' was with difficulty kept pinned under the lee; in fact, it was evident that 'Valkyrie' could not allow her opponent a cross-tacking chance, or her quarry would certainly have slipped her. The breezes were paltry and patchy, with plenty of white water spots about, and the course was shortened to the extent of one third the distance, 'Valkyrie' eventually crawling home winner about three lengths ahead of 'Britannia,' although there was 1 min. 56 secs. difference between them in time. 'Calluna's' big sail-plan availed her little, and 'Satanita' never once really woke up in the prevailing zephyrs. 'Calluna' finished 16 mins. 53 secs. astern of 'Valkyrie,' and 'Satanita' struggled in against the tide 8 mins. 6 secs. after 'Calluna.'

July 19: Royal Irish Yacht Club


There was a piping breeze from the westward on the opening day of the Royal Irish Regatta, and a stirring struggle with 'Satanita,' 'Britannia,' and 'Calluna' for Her Majesty's Cup was accordingly anticipated. 'Calluna' risked a whole mainsail, but 'Britannia' and 'Satanita' had the baby reef in and all set jibheaded topsails. Perfect judgment was shown on the 'Satanita' and 'Britannia' in manœuvring for the start, but 'Satanita's' skipper scored first honours as he gave his ship a wipe away at the nick of time, and she reached through the line, fairly foaming a length ahead of the Prince of Wales's cutter, 'Calluna' being about a hundred yards astern. They went along the wind at a tearing pace to the Muglins Mark, jib-topsails being cracked on, and on going to the Kish the wind was brought on the quarter, a nasty roll tried spars and gear, and an ugly gybe came on before making the Lightship. At this mark 'Satanita' had given a startling illustration of her speed with a free sheet, as she led the 'Britannia' 2 mins. 5 secs., with 'Calluna' only 19 secs. astern of the latter.

A very fast piece of close reaching was done between the Kish and the Rosebeg, then came a dead peg across the Bay. 'Britannia' tried hard to get 'Satanita' into short tacking, and the latter, having to turn about more often than suited her, found 'Britannia' settling up, enabling 'Calluna' to profit by the game her opponents were playing. In a hard squall the second round commenced, and through a backing of the wind they had a run with spinnakers to the Kish. A gybe had to be made, and it was a heavy one. 'Satanita' and 'Britannia' got their booms over all right, but 'Calluna's' came in a hurry, and while the boom-end was buried deep in the water, the inner part came with a surge against the runner and broke off, the outer half of the spar launching in board and lying square across the deck. Luckily no one was hurt, which was simply a miracle.

Royal Irish Yacht Club
  1 Satanita XX.XX.XX
  2 Britannia +.02 47
  3 Iverna DNF

The 'Satanita' and 'Britannia' sailed a desperate race during the rest of the round, and this time the former had the better of her rival beating across the bay. In going free to the Kish on the last turn, 'Satanita' sailed in peerless form, and had a lead of 4 mins. 44 secs. at the Lightship. In a close reach to the Rosebeg, 'Satanita' lost a few seconds, and then followed a splendid race tack and tack home. 'Britannia' was the better on this point, but 'Satanita' kept her under the lee and weathered the line with a lead of 2 mins. 47 secs., winning the Royal trophy and scoring a brilliant victory with 69 secs. to spare.

July 20: Royal Irish Yacht Club

Royal Irish Yacht Club
  1 Britannia 5.02.36
  2 Satanita 5.06 50
  3 Iverna DNS

The Royal Irish Regatta finished on Thursday, July 20, in changeable weather and baffling breezes. With 'Calluna' crippled, the 'Satanita' and 'Britannia' had a match for the club prize, and not at all unexpectedly 'Britannia' was winner. She scored by no means a bloodless victory, and her crew had a scare when 'Satanita' struck into a breeze about half water between the Muglins and Kish, and went streaking past like a flash of greased lightning. 'Satanita' was pluckily sailed, but had not wind enough to wake her up and, when the match was stopped at the end of the second round, 'Britannia' had a lead of 4 mins. 4 secs.

July 31: Royal London Yacht Club

Most auspicious was the opening of the Cowes racing week in regard to wind and weather, there being every indication of the morning breeze of Monday freshening when the stream bent westward, and of lasting sunshine and a clear atmosphere. The match was under the Royal London burgee, and the club had adopted a new course of which it may be said that a better could not have been marked off inside the Isle of Wight. The big cutter entry included the 'Valkyrie,' 'Britannia,' 'Satanita,' 'Calluna,' 'Iverna,' and the Gold Cup challenger 'Navahoe,' and there was general rejoicing on the morning of the day that the American would be certain to get a trustworthy test of speed in her first racing essay. Curiosity to see how she would acquit herself under the circumstances ran high.

Britannia off Cowes, 1893. Satanita and Iverna astern with the Royal Yacht Victoria and Albert II at anchor.
Britannia off Cowes, 1893. Satanita and Iverna astern
with the Royal Yacht Victoria and Albert II at anchor..

The match commenced with a free reach to the eastward on the back of a fair tide, and the wind followed and gave a run, but it came in streaks and the fleet were all together at the Warner, the 'Valkyrie' being leader, with 'Navahoe' 75 secs. astern. A nice breeze was found to windward, and in turning in to the Noman 'Valkyrie' worked away from the Yankee and then went for 'Britannia,' which, with 'Satanita,' stood away for the north shore. 'Valkyrie' was then left with 'Navahoe,' and the latter along Ryde Sands and on to the Motherbank got more wind and a slacker tide, inside 'Valkyrie,' and forereached so much the faster that on coming off she crossed comfortably ahead of Lord Dunraven's cutter. 'Navahoe' performed this feat 'on her uppers,' while 'Valkyrie' was stiff as a tree, perhaps through having less wind than there was to leeward. The breezes continued to be served out partially in strength and direction, and 'Britannia,' 'Satanita,' and 'Calluna' were having a bad time in working the north shore down.

'Valkyrie' picked up 'Navahoe' in beating on to Calshot, and went round that mark with just a clear lead. The breeze was unsteady and puffy in reaching to Lepe, but for the most part sheets were checked, and 'Navahoe's' big sail-plan dragged her by to windward of 'Valkyrie,' and she was first round Lepe buoy, but she made a wide sweep in the gybe and 'Valkyrie' ran on to the fore.

With a leading wind 'Navahoe' slipped through to leeward into first place before getting to Cowes, and thence they squared away. 'Valkyrie' was not raced with the same spirit as 'Britannia' was on the first run eastward, or the 'Navahoe' would have been luffed out into Spithead; the latter was, in fact, allowed to keep the even tenour of her way, and she rounded the Warner with 10 secs. lead of 'Valkyrie,' 'Britannia' having run up on both, while 'Satanita' had taken the American in nearly 3 mins. With a weather tide and truer and fresher breeze, they had a fair test to windward, and a couple of boards sufficed for 'Valkyrie' and 'Britannia' to weather the American. 'Valkyrie' was sailed to bother 'Britannia,' while the 'Navahoe' was fairly let run loose. Had the sister ships been simply sailing boat against boat, they could not have carried on a keener duel.

Royal London Yacht Club
  1 Britannia 5.46.16
  2 Valkyrie 5.47.19.
  3 Navahoe 5.47.39
  4 Satanita 5.50.06
  5 Calluna 5.53.52
  6 Iverna DNF

'Britannia' beat 'Valkyrie,' but instead of having a substantial lead at Calshot Lightship, she was only just to windward of 'Valkyrie,' and but 1 min. 33 secs. ahead of 'Navahoe.' In reaching to Lepe, 'Britannia' and 'Valkyrie' gained in distance on the American, but nothing in time, owing to the rushing lee-tide.
There was a smart breeze to blow them home against the boiling stream, and the 'Navahoe's' big sail-plan helped her. Both 'Britannia' and 'Valkyrie,' however, kept to the fore, and 'Britannia' finished winner of a hard race, 63 secs. ahead of 'Valkyrie,' 1 min. 23 secs. of 'Navahoe,' 3 mins. 50 secs. of 'Satanita,' and 7 mins. 36 secs. of 'Calluna.' It may be said that 'Satanita' gained 4 mins. 34 secs. and 'Calluna' 6 mins. 18 secs. on the 'Navahoe' in sailing the second round; the pair picked up on 'Britannia' and 'Valkyrie' simply owing to the suicidal tactics adopted in racing the sister ships.

August 1st: Royal Yacht Squadron

Britannia and Valkyrie (II) thundering across the line at Cowes, 1893
Britannia and Valkyrie (II) thundering across the line at Cowes, 1893

A breeze was wanting on the opening morning of the Royal Yacht Squadron Regatta to put animation in the scene afloat, still in the flood of sunshine it was a brilliant spectacle. There was a galaxy of private yachts, and quite a fleet of fighting ships of various nationalities riding on the Solent dressed in bunting, the German Emperor's new 'Hohenzollern' looming up a very Triton amongst the host, through which the racing fleet had presently to thread their way eastward. The starters for Her Majesty's Cup were the 'Meteor,' 'Britannia,' 'Valkyrie,' 'Viking,' née 'Wendur,' and 'Mohawk.' An alteration in the course had been made by substituting the Bullock patch buoy for the Nab, and with thoughtful consideration for the length of leg of the modern craft, the three-fathom North Bramble Channel was left out.

A dreadfully slow run was made eastward, the 16½ miles from Cowes to the eastern limit of the course taking about 2½ hours to cover. The breezes came in puffs out of every cloud, but mostly from the north or north-west, and in this sort of weather it was absolutely humiliating that the aspirant for America Cup honours should be led round the lee mark by the seven-season-old 'Meteor.' With a better and fairly true breeze westerly 'Valkyrie' and 'Britannia' on a close reach in to the Noman passed the Emperor's cutter, and, from mark to mark eight miles, 'Valkyrie' beat 'Meteor' exactly 4 mins. After fetching well up to Cowes, they turned through the roads, and then got a northerly slant in the west channel; a flying weather-tide settled them bodily to windward, and at Lymington mark 'Valkyrie,' which had gone in grand form to windward, was 3 mins. ahead of 'Britannia' and 15 mins. 40 secs. of 'Meteor,' the time allowance of the last named having thus run out by 68 secs. The wind was breezing up, and they ran through a roaring ebb tide at a fair speed, the modern boats pushing out a tremendous bow wave.

Royal Yacht Squadron
  1 Meteor 5.57.45
  2 Britannia 5.59.25
  3 Navahoe 5.47.39
  4 Viking DNF
  5 Mohawak DNF
  6 Valkyrie DSQ

The 'Meteor' unquestionably had a stronger following breeze than the two leaders, and with about 3½ ft. less draught than 'Valkyrie,' she could be edged inside the tide rift on the north shore, the result being that she gained 50 secs. on 'Valkyrie,' yet with an allowance of 14 mins. 32 secs. she thus lost by 18 secs.

On the question being raised that 'Valkyrie' had not followed the track marked on the official chart furnished, it was admitted that she had left the Nab on the wrong hand, and the Sailing Committee disqualified her and declared the 'Meteor' winner of Her Majesty's Cup. It may be said that the 'Wendur' after rounding Lymington mark attempted to set her spinnaker, but lost the sail, which was picked up by a pilot boat. Worse still, the boom was let drop in the water, and on it breaking two of the crew were badly hurt.

August 2: Royal Yacht Squadron

Finish of the Race for the Meteor Challenge Shield : The Britannia & Satanita returning to CowesWednesday, August 2, was chosen by the Royal Yacht Squadron for the match for the Meteor Challenge Shield presented by the German Emperor, the course being from Cowes round the Isle of Wight (outside Nab), thence round the Shambles Lightship and back through the Needles passage to Cowes, a distance of 112 miles. According to the conditions four yachts were to start or no race, but out of an entry of six only 'Britannia' and 'Satanita' went for the trophy. The start, which was fixed for seven o'clock, was delayed an hour owing to the card and sailing directions differing. At 8 o'clock, when 'Britannia' and 'Satanita' got away, the 'Valkyrie's' crew, which had made a show of getting the vessel ready, had proceeded as far as hoisting a jib in stops and lashing up the fighting colours, the vessel subsequently lying listless at anchor all day. A charmingly bright clear morning with a bonny breeze from the north-west sent the two ships scudding out in hot haste to the eastward. Spinnakers were on and jackyard topsails, and at the Nab 'Britannia' had run out a lead of 4 mins. Coming on a reach the east stream was faced, and 'Satanita,' doing a wonderful stretch of sailing, had almost drawn level with her rival, when the wind came ahead and gave a beat of about forty miles to the Shambles.

Meteor Challenge Shield
  1 Britannia X.XX.XX
  2 Satanita X.XX.XX
No time was taken

In order to shun the tide the Island shore was worked, but 'Satanita' got too close and bumped hard several times on Atherfield Ledge. In working on a nasty short jump of sea was trying the vessels, and off Swanage the breeze came in such hard puffs that big topsails were got down. 'Britannia' worked away from her rival, and after a pretty considerable amount of pile-driving got round the Shambles at 4 o'clock with a lead of 10 mins. They had to face a west tide, and as the evening closed in the wind almost entirely failed. In the west channel it was mere tide-work, and at 9.30 'Britannia' drove across the line winner, 'Satanita' at the time being barely discernible astern. It was an uninteresting match, but a hard one for ships and crews, and in the heavy plunging which went on between the Needles and St. Albans 'Britannia' sprung her mast.

August 3: Royal Yacht Squadron

Thursday morning opened with a fine singing breeze from the west-south-west, and the match for the Cowes Town Cup gave promise of stirring sport. 'Britannia's' absence, owing to her mast being sprung, was generally regretted; but 'Navahoe,' 'Valkyrie,' 'Satanita,' and 'Calluna' appeared under fighting flags. All had a single reef in mainsails, and 'Valkyrie's' topmast was struck, the rest keeping theirs on end. They were sent first to the westward, and had a clean reach to the first mark, a capitally judged start being made.

'Satanita,' nearest the Hampshire shore, was first on the line, with 'Valkyrie' overlapping the western quarter, and 'Calluna' and 'Navahoe' broad to windward. Laying down to the hard breeze, 'Satanita' was given the weight of it, and went smoking away, while 'Navahoe' in weather berth was getting comparatively very lightly sailed. A hard breeze, however, caught the Yankee, making her curl up to an ugly angle, and as she went off her helm, 'Calluna's' crew were getting scared that she would either drop down flat on them or make a wild shoot into their ship. A heavier slam than the first put the 'Navahoe' fairly out of control, and she went down on her side and wallowed helplessly in a smother of foam, until a gripe up to the wind relieved her and she came upright, when particular care was taken not to fill on her again. The weight of the wind had burst the mainsail at the clew, and, after getting the sail off the vessel ran away up Southampton Water, International rivalry thus coming to a summary end for the day.

Owing to the strong wind and flood tide, the mark-boat had driven about a mile eastward, so it was soon reached down to, and 'Satanita' was first round, then 'Valkyrie' and 'Calluna.' It was a broad reach to the Warner, and cracking on a jibheaded topsail 'Satanita' was ploughing along at an astounding speed; in fact, she was doing 14½ knots when crossing the Admiralty mile. With a jibheader on, the leader was leaving 'Valkyrie,' which had lost 'Calluna's' close company through the latter, when careening to a squall, fouling the jibboom of the steam yacht 'Cleopatra,' the cutter getting mainsail split and gaff broken. 'Satanita' stayed round the Warner at 10.52, 1 min. 18 secs. before 'Valkyrie,' and the former had the benefit of a reach back as far as Cowes. Heavy squalls came off the Island, and 'Satanita' had lee decks full, 'Valkyrie' by comparison standing up manfully.

Royal Yacht Squadron
  1 Satanita 3.40.50
  2 Valkyrie 3.49.03
  3 Calluna DNF
  4 Navahoe DNF

Owing to the flagboat drifting, they went round Lepe buoy, and having to nip to fetch, 'Valkyrie' gained a trifle. Coming back free, 'Satanita' was driven along with jibheader, and she held a lead of 7½ mins. at the Warner. The homeward track could be laid clean full, and the wind coming off with canvas-splitting force, 'Satanita's' lee decks were washing like a porpoise's back, but she was travelling at a tremendous speed and would have gone much faster and on a more even keel had the topmast been struck. It was a wonderful display of fast sailing on her part, as she finished 8 mins. 13 secs. before 'Valkyrie,' and covered the distance, 48 miles, allowing for the drifted flagboat at Lepe, in 3 hrs. 40 mins. 50 secs., thus averaging a little over 12½ knots.

August 4: Royal Yacht Squadron

An exceedingly brilliant wind-up of an eventful regatta was made at Cowes on Friday, August 4, when the Royal Yacht Squadron prize was sailed round the Warner-Lepe course. The competitors were 'Satanita,' 'Valkyrie,' 'Calluna,' and 'Navahoe,' and they started on a short beat down the west channel in a rising breeze from the west-south-west,Artwork by Shane Michael Couch, The King's cutter Britannia and the mighty Satanita powering to the finish off the Royal Yacht Squadron, 1893, Made of oil on canvas jibheaded topsails being set over whole mainsails. In the first board 'Navahoe' was weathered by each of her rivals, the Yankee being kept hovering in the wind, instead of being made to feel the weight of it, the previous day's experience perhaps being the cause. A heavy squall with sheets of rain passed over before the Western mark-boat was weathered, and they drove back to Cowes with spinnakers, all but the Yankee being run on the wrong gybe.

From a run they came to a free reach off Osborne, and went streaking out at a great pace to the Warner, all except 'Satanita' cracking on jackyarders, but 'Valkyrie' shifted back to jibheader off the Sandhead buoy. The latter kept pride of place going east, but in coming back clean full the wind came off the Island in savage puffs and 'Satanita' was racing up. A regular flame of wind struck off above the Peel, and 'Satanita' went by the windward into first place, leaving 'Valkyrie' fairly stuck up. 'Navahoe' and 'Calluna' hung on to big topsails too long, the Yankee continuing whipper-in and falling down flat on her side in the hardest of the gushes. 'Satanita,' too, crabbed up badly, but did not heel to such an angle as 'Navahoe,' and was always lively and manageable in the puffs; she also got up a higher head of speed the fresher the wind piped.

Royal Yacht Squadron
  1 Satanita 2.31.36
  2 Valkyrie 2.33.45
  3 Calluna 2 35 56
  4 Navahoe 2 38 10

On the second round it was harder driving between 'Satanita' and 'Valkyrie' than with 'Calluna' and 'Navahoe,' and after the free reach to the Warner the first named was 2 mins. 2 secs. ahead or 3 secs. short of her allowance. It was just a clean reach from the Noman to Cowes, and some of the puffs came off the Island with the rush of a white squall.
'Satanita' was knocked down flatter than 'Valkyrie,' but she did not steady her speed, and finished a splendidly fought and most exciting race with 2 mins. 9 secs. lead of 'Valkyrie,' 'Satanita' winning with 4 secs. to spare. 'Calluna' was 5 mins. 22 secs. astern of the winner, and 'Navahoe' 7 mins. 36 secs.

August 5: Royal Southampton Club

ROYAL SOUTHAMPTON YACHT CLUB.<br>1892. Warner and Lymington Course.
1892. "Warner and Lymington Course".

Ill fortune has of late haunted each annual Saturday fixture of the Royal Southampton Club, and that of August 5, instead of attracting the fleet of heavy weights, was reduced to a match between the 'Navahoe' and 'Calluna.' The 'Britannia' had her new mast in, but was not ready, 'Satanita' was getting a strengthening band shrunk on her masthead, and 'Valkyrie,' which had come across from Cowes to Southampton Water, did not start, fearing there would be too much wind for her sprung main-boom. A north-wester came shooting down Southampton Water fresh enough for 'Navahoe's' small reef to be pulled down, 'Calluna,' however, had whole mainsail and both jibheaders. The Scotch clipper was unluckily sailed through the line too soon, and the 'Navahoe' got two minutes start; but 'Calluna' bringing quite a rattle of wind, nearly nailed her rival at Calshot Spit. The breeze got light in the west channel and came bare, while the tide had to be stemmed. 'Navahoe' kept sailing into the first of the wind, and, getting a fine lift near the Lymington Mark, led by 3 mins. 'Calluna' was sailed without heart or judgment in the run up the west channel, and so on to the Warner. She might well have carried her jackyard topsail going west, and certainly wanted it, coming back with sheets off.

Royal Southampton Yacht Club
  1 Navahoe 5.48.12
  2 Calluna 5.49.20

'Calluna' was gybed in Cowes Roads for some reason; and while her opponent was running clean with boom the other side, the Scotch boat was 'by the lee.' 'Navahoe' at length was first to shift her big topsail, and had 6 mins. lead at the time, but when 'Calluna' did go to work sail shifting, it took her crew eighteen minutes to get down the jibheaded topsail and replace it with jackyarder. In the beat from the Warner up past Browndown there were some flukes lying under the north shore which might have been picked up for the seeking, and 'Calluna's' poor attempt at match sailing ended by 'Navahoe' weathering the line off Netley with a lead of 11 mins. 25 secs.

August 14: Royal Albert Yacht Club


The racing fleet mustered in force on the Royal Albert Station, and cruisers swarmed thick as bees to do honour to the last of the Solent racing fixtures. A light gauzy haze in the early morning of Monday, August 14, did not bode well for sport, but an air came just before the starting hour for the Albert Cup, and stretched out the fighting flags of 'Britannia,' 'Navahoe,' 'Calluna,' and 'Satanita.' A south-east breeze of about weight enough for small jib-topsails to be carried with profit to windward was drawing in against the last of the east-going stream, when an eventful race commenced with 'Satanita's' bowsprit end showing first across the line; the others were close at hand, and a pretty start was made.

The wind freshened at night after Weymouth Regatta, and on Sunday morning there was an ugly sea off the Bill. The yachts which made the passage to Torquay had a coarse time, some of them ran back, others did not leave the Dorset port, the consequence being that there was a poor muster in Torbay. The 'Satanita,' 'Navahoe,' 'Britannia,' and 'Calluna' were ready to answer the starting gun on Monday morning when the wind was piping loud from the westward. All had a reef in mainsails, and topmasts were housed when anchors were broken out, but 'Satanita's' was very unwisely got on end, and she subsequently set a jibheader.

'Satanita,' over-eager, sailed the line too soon, and her opponents had been racing for the off mark nearly 3 mins. before she followed them across. With the wind quarterly, she soon smoked out to the first flagboat, where 'Navahoe' was leader and 'Calluna' second. Then came a beat in a little head jump, and the full drift of the wind was felt. 'Navahoe's' performance in beating to Brixham was far and away her worst display, as she simply crabbed on her uppers and sidled away, while 'Satanita,' crippled as she was with jibheader, was—truth to tell—not shaping a whit better, and seemed to be simply wallowing in dead water. Off Brixham, 'Satanita' had another set back, through one of her extra hands slipping overboard, but a very smart job was made in picking the man up.

'Satanita' was punished with jibheader again on the second round, and 'Britannia,' 'Calluna,' and 'Navahoe' were waltzing away from her. On the third round the sail was pulled down and the spar housed, but it was too late in the day to pick up the first flight. 'Satanita,' however, began to tramp away, and in addition to reaching her rivals beat the lot going to windward. The wind fairly whistled off shore as they reached on for Goodrington, but 'Calluna' and 'Navahoe' did not lower staysails as on the second round.

Royal Albert Yacht Club
  1 Britannia 6.41.34
  2 Satanita 6.43.48.
  3 Navahoe DNF
  5 Calluna DNF

The 'Britannia's' jib, however, burst, and 'Navahoe' shifted hers. The latter was in the way of a regular canvas splitter as she kept away round the Goodrington mark, and falling down flat she swept the mark-boat with her mainsail, but continued the match. At the end of the third round 'Navahoe' was 8 mins. astern of 'Britannia,' and 4 mins. of 'Calluna,' while 'Satanita' had gained 4 mins. on the Yankee in 10 miles. The 'Navahoe's' mainsail was found to be damaged at the clew, and to be giving out at the reef lacing, and just as 'Satanita' was collaring her off the Imperial she drew to the wind and gave up. On the last round 'Satanita' gained 1 min. 42 secs. on 'Britannia,' the latter finishing an easy winner 4 mins. 30 secs. ahead of 'Calluna,' and 7 mins. 9 secs. of 'Satanita.'

August 15: Royal Albert Yacht Club


The wind hardened during the dark hours, and was blowing a moderate gale from the south-west at sunrise. It had veered westerly and moderated a little an hour before the start, and the 'Britannia,' 'Calluna,' and 'Satanita' housed topmasts, got first reef in mainsails, and set third jibs in anticipation of a dusting. 'Navahoe' could not start, owing to her damaged mainsail; but had she joined in there is no reason to suppose that she would have shaped better than on the previous day, as the wind was about the same in strength and direction, and the course almost identical.

'Britannia' and 'Satanita' made a grand start, but with the wind abaft the beam the latter cleared out at once from under her rival's lee, and gave a really phenomenal display of speed going to the flagboat outside Hope's Nose, covering the distance in 13 mins. 50 secs.

Royal Albert Yacht Club
  1 Britannia 3.55.00
  2 Calluna 3.57.45.
  3 Navahoe 4.04.45
  4 Satanita 4.08.32

She was at the mark in the thick of a passing squall, and when the tiller was put down to bring her by the wind it broke off close into the rudder-head, Jay, who always steers from the lee side, being just saved from going overboard. The mishap was alike annoying to crew and spectators as the vessel would, without doubt, have established a record over the Torbay course. The 'Britannia' and 'Calluna' then had a match, and, curious to state, 'Calluna' in the hard wind which prevailed during the first, second, and third rounds, fairly beat 'Britannia' on each turn while sailing with a free sheet, the advantage gained by the latter being on the beat between the sea mark and Brixham. On the last round the wind took off a little and 'Britannia' made an all-round gain, eventually beating her antagonist by 4 mins. 17 secs.

August 25: Royal Dart Yacht Club


In contrast to the tearing pipe-up at Torquay, variable breezes, flaws, catspaws, and calms prevailed in Start Bay when the Royal Dart matches were decided. Owing to the death of the Duke of Coburg the 'Britannia' did not start, but 'Navahoe' was under racing colours again, and she was opposed by 'Calluna' and 'Satanita,' Mr. Crocker, of New York, having arrived just in time to sail the American.

All light kites were set, and 'Satanita' led the race on a reach to the Skerries buoy, at which mark 'Navahoe' was whipper-in. 'Calluna,' through luffing out to cover 'Satanita,' let 'Navahoe' through into second place, and the latter ran up close to the leader.

Royal Dart Yacht Club
  1 Britannia x.xx.xx
  2 Calluna x.xx.xx
  3 Satanita x.xx.xx
  4 Navahoe x.xx.xx

The breeze got so soft that they could hardly gain on the tide, and getting a flaw first on one quarter and then on the other positions kept changing, till at the last mark 'Satanita' was just clear ahead of 'Calluna'; the tide, however, hooked the latter and set her on to the mark-boat, and she at once gave up.
'Satanita' and 'Navahoe' reached along in a trickling air with all light kites set, and 'Satanita' finished the first round with a lead of 1 min. 18 secs. Both got in the doldrums near the Start mark, but taking a chill 'Navahoe' got away with a long lead 'Satanita,' however, brought enough wind to drag her by to windward, and give her a good lead at the east mark. 'Satanita' was lucky enough to get a new wind first, which kept pretty true and steady afterward, and she eventually beat 'Navahoe' in a fluky race by 7 mins. 45 secs.

4 Times Round.

August 26: Start Bay Yacht Club

An Opportune Breeze From The South East by Steven Dews

The rising Start Bay Club, to its credit be it said, catered for the big ships, and in return secured the entry of the familiar quartet. After a breathless morning an opportune breeze from the south-east travelled in from sea and put a little life into the start. The 'Satanita,' however, had just before drove on to the outer flagboat and she was then kept lying with staysail to windward. 'Navahoe' crossed the line first, and in a soft breeze went clean full and by for the Torcross flagboat, 'Britannia' and 'Calluna' being sailed finer. 'Satanita,' when told by the Committee to 'go on,' crossed the line 11 mins. 20 secs. after 'Navahoe,' and getting a better breeze than the leaders she gained about 7 mins. on 'Navahoe.' The last named went stealing along in the gentle breeze and finished the first round 33 seconds before 'Britannia.'

The breeze freshened and they came on a taut bowline, and after 'Navahoe' had tried her best to wind 'Britannia,' the latter squeezed through her lee and in the next board crossed ahead, while 'Satanita' closed up. After a run from the west to east mark, they had a broad reach home in a fine breeze, 'Britannia' keeping bell-wether. 'Navahoe' held second place in the beat to Torcross, but 'Satanita' went past in going down wind for the next mark.

Start Bay Yacht Club
  1 Britannia x.xx.xx
  2 Satanita x.xx.xx
  3 Navahoe x.xx.xx
  4 Calluna x.xx.xx

It was a curious finish, as after reaching in fairly foaming, the wind cut off within a quarter of a mile of the winning line, and 'Britannia' came upright. She then got a cyclonic cooler, which filled the lower sails one way and the topsail the other. 'Britannia's' long lead looked likely to be wiped out, as the 'Satanita,' 'Navahoe,' and 'Calluna' were meanwhile tearing in foaming. They in turn got stuck up, however, in the same vortex, and 'Britannia' was logged winner with a lead of 7 mins. 16 secs. of 'Satanita,' 9 mins. 20 secs. of 'Navahoe,' and 12 mins. 44 secs. of 'Calluna.' 'Satanita's' was a remarkably fine performance in such weather; but, after all, she had a bootless journey, the 'Navahoe' taking second prize.

September 11: Royal Victoria Yacht Club

The 'Navahoe' did not go further west than Dartmouth, but gave topsail-sheet for Cowes to get her wings clipped and a thorough brush up before the Gold Cup and other challenge cup matches with 'Britannia.'

Had the matches for the Royal Victoria Gold Cup been set for decision earlier in the season, and the challenger and defender not previously gauged their speed, deeper and wider interest would very naturally have been taken in the contests. As matters stood, the result appeared a foregone conclusion, yet many were warned by the 'Navahoe's' admirers that a little clipping and other alterations would be found to have wrought an improvement both in stability and speed, and that she would make a closer fight than was generally anticipated. The club arrangements for the first match of the series, on Wednesday, Sept. 6, appeared to be as perfect as possible, and excitement ran high on the morning of the day. There was a great crowd on Ryde Pier, and the official steamer which embarked ticket-holders at Southampton, Cowes, Ryde, and Southsea carried a large and critical company.

NAVAHOE on the Clyde, 1893 by Tim Thompson
NAVAHOE on the Clyde, 1893 by Tim Thompson

Friday was appointed for the final match over the long Victoria course, and it turned out a very coarse time, the wind coming in tearing squalls and the rain in sheets. 'Navahoe's' mainsail gave out at the eyelet lacings, and the second reef was got down, the start meanwhile being delayed. The American, however, eventually brought up, and Mr. Jameson, who was acting for the Prince of Wales on the 'Britannia,' declined, under the circumstances, to take advantage of a 'sail over,' it being mutually agreed subsequently to race on Monday.

Monday opened with a rattling breeze from the eastward, but it had toned down at 11 o'clock, and was then a typical time to test the rivals under lower canvas with mainsails single reefed. As usual with the wind out there was a tumble of sea off Spithead. They started to the eastward at 11.5, and had a beat to the Nab, 'Britannia' having the best of it, as she was broad to windward at the flash of the gun. The west tide was going, and a long stretch was made across Spithead, 'Britannia' giving her rival a blistering for a time. She was too far ahead off the Warner to be spilling 'Navahoe's' head-sail, and, smashing through the short sea in peerless style, beat the American 9 mins. 5 secs.—or a minute a mile—turning to the Nab. Spinnakers Irish-reefed and hoisted to masthead were set after they had reached on to the Spit mark, and a gybe was made off Lee, the western flag being tacked round, and here 'Britannia' led by 9 mins. 7 secs.

'Navahoe' after rounding appeared to be starved for wind, while 'Britannia' was getting rammed along. Soon the jibsheets of the American ran out, and the sail had to be secured, sheets rove, and the sail reset, 'Britannia' meanwhile having hopped a long distance away; and she weathered the home flagboat and finished the first round with a lead of 17 mins. 7 secs. The Nab was turned to in a lighter breeze and smoother water, and 'Navahoe,' getting a northerly slant when off the Elbow buoy of the Dean, made a long leg out, while 'Britannia' had been pegging away at short turnings. The latter, however, weathered the lightship holding a lead of 14 mins. 5 secs., and she only added 10 secs. in going free to the western mark. The wind having backed to the eastward, they could lay clean for home, and with a fair tide the ground was covered very fast. 'Britannia's' masthead had gone aft, and the heel of her housed topmast was sticking out so far that it had torn the staysail just inside the tabling, and the sail split up from foot to head just before she crossed the line victorious in her defence of the Royal Victoria Gold Cup. The 'Britannia' finished at 4 hrs. 29 mins. 17 secs., and 'Navahoe' at 4 hrs. 44 mins. 25 secs.

September 12: Brenton Reef Cup

After having finished the deciding match for the Royal Victoria Gold Cup, conqueror and conquered sailed away westward and rode the night out at anchor in Cowes Roads. Tuesday, Sept. 12, was fixed for the race for the Brenton Reef Cup, and it turned out a bright crisp morning, with a fine singing breeze easterly, and, gauged by the loom on the seascape, it appeared probable the wind would prevail from that quarter.

Britannia racing Navahoe in the Benton Reef Cup, 14th September, 1893
Britannia racing Navahoe in the Benton Reef Cup, 14th September, 1893

According to conditions the course was from off the Needles Rocks round Cherbourg breakwater, passing in at the west end and out at the east, and returning to the Needles, the distance being computed at 120 miles. The antagonists were towed away after breakfast to the rendezvous, and going down the west channel a reef was put in mainsails, No. 3 jibs hoisted in stops, and flying jibs stowed at bowsprit ends, while jibheaded topsails were set after the last pull had been taken at purchases. The owner of the 'Navahoe's' wish that 5 mins. be allowed for crossing the line and the difference corrected at the finish of the match was acceded to, and about 11.30 the official steamer was in position, Mr. R. Grant, secretary of the Royal Yacht Squadron, being officer in charge. The imaginary starting line was formed by bringing the three Needles Rocks in one, and at noon the Blue Peter was lowered and the match commenced.

'Britannia' reached across the line at 12 hrs. 1 min. 6 secs. P.M., the 'Navahoe' at 12 hrs. 2 mins. 5 secs., the Prince of Wales's cutter thus having 54½ secs. to allow at the finish. Sheets were trimmed for a beam wind, and with flying jibs and balloon staysails set they went racing fast across the down-coming ebb. There was a nasty ground swell, and on getting clear from under the lee of the land the full weight of the wind was felt, the sea getting crested and heavy. Jibheaders were handed, flying jibs lowered, and working staysails set, and travelling upwards of twelve knots there was plenty of drift knocking about. 'Britannia' continued to keep 'Navahoe' astern, and two hours after the start 25 miles had been logged. The wind kept true and they continued to sail a punishing race, the vessels labouring a good deal in the lumpy sea, and yawing in all directions. Keeping up an even speed of about twelve knots, they made the breakwater about four and a half hours after the start, and up to this time 'Britannia' had kept her lead. When about five miles off, 'Navahoe' was let come up sharp across the leader's wake, and, making a shoot afterward off her helm, she looked like coming in to her opponent. 'Britannia' dropped back after being thus covered up, and then came into her rival's wake, and they raced on into the comparative smoothing under the land, with 'Navahoe' holding a few lengths lead.

'The Breton Reef Challenge Cup, Britannia & Navahoe' by Adrian Rigby.
'The Breton Reef Challenge Cup, Britannia & Navahoe' by Adrian Rigby.

Topmasts were housed, and they passed into the breakwater ready for the two-miles beat through Cherbourg Roads. This was at 5 o'clock, and 'Navahoe' had a lead of 25 secs. 'Britannia' drew to close round the buoy, 'Navahoe' found her opponent beating out broad on her weather, and in the first board 'Britannia' held a clear lead. In the last tack 'Britannia' stood on until she could spoil her opponent, and it took 'Navahoe' a few minutes to recover the winding. 'Britannia' headed out of the eastern end with about 2 mins. lead, and on getting in the open the ebb was still going west. It was a clean fetch back, but the wind was heavier and the sea steeper than on coming over. When night closed in they were about half-way across Channel, the vessels then getting fearfully punished. They raced together, however, in a wonderful way, 'Britannia' keeping the lead, with 'Navahoe' about 150 yards astern, the latter running wildly about, pointing one minute wide of the leader's weather quarter and anon for the lee side.

Foresails had with difficulty been lowered when the vessels were about two miles off the breakwater, but with the wind more moderate, when they were about five miles off St. Catherine's they were reset. The flood tide was streaming hard, but 'Britannia' on closing in to the Needles was hauled up a bit for fear the wind should draw off the land, while 'Navahoe' was sailed hard along and closed on the leader. As the club steamer could not be anchored in the fairway outside the Needles, she was brought into Alum Bay and moored, and according to official timing 'Britannia' showed 'on' with the Needles Light at 10 hrs. 37 mins. 35 secs. P.M., the 'Navahoe' at 10 hrs. 38 mins. 32 secs., 'Britannia' thus being winner on corrected time by 2½ secs. Mr. Carroll protested that the judge's steamer was not in position, and that the difference between the vessels at the finish was not so much as 57 secs. A meeting of the Royal Yacht Squadron Sailing Committee was called, and it was decided to adjudge 'Navahoe' winner. It need hardly be said that this ruling was thought hard on 'Britannia' after such a grand race, and no explanation of the finding was forthcoming. It was understood that the owner of the 'Navahoe' would not agree to the match being re-sailed.

September 15: Cape May Cup

Royal Phelps Carroll's 85-footer Navahoe
Royal Phelps Carroll's 85-footer Navahoe

It was arranged to sail for the Cape May Cup on Friday, Sept. 15, under precisely similar conditions to those which governed the Brenton Reef Cup, and over the same course. In order to obviate any difficulty about timing in the dark, it was agreed that the start and finish should be from Alum Bay, and Col. J. Sterling undertook the duties of starter and time-keeper. Seven o'clock was named for a beginning, but the vessels could not move out of Cowes Roads until 9.30, owing to a dense fog choking up the west channel.

On getting down to Alum Bay a further wait had to be made, owing to a glass calm prevailing, and it was not until 12.30 that the preparatory flag was broken out. There was a soft westerly breeze at the time, which gave a short beat out to the Needles. Fine generalship was displayed on 'Britannia,' which was intentionally sailed through the line before the gun, and 'Navahoe' was allowed the honour of showing the way. 'Britannia' followed 10 secs. later, and on meeting 'Navahoe' standing off on port tack put her round, and presently stayed dead in her wind. 'Navahoe' got a terrible shake-off, and was 2½ mins. astern at the Needles. They then had a close reach off into the Channel, and with the light breeze narrowing only slow progress was made. An hour and a half after the start 'Britannia' held a lead of about a mile, and at 7 o'clock she was judged to be three miles ahead. At 8 o'clock there was not a breath of wind, the vessels laid in a perfect calm for about two hours, and it was reckoned that 'Britannia' was then about twenty miles off the Wight. At 10.15 a north-east breeze gathered in, 'Britannia' ran away with it, and in the pitchy darkness 'Navahoe' could not be made out.

The breeze kept up, and the spinnaker was carried on 'Britannia' until Cape Barfleur lights were made out right ahead. Owing to an alteration in the character of the lights not being noticed on the chart for a time, it was thought 'Britannia' was too far to the westward, the spinnaker was then got off, and the vessel hauled up a little. The western end was made in the grey of the morning, and on entering at 5.29 'Britannia' was holding about three miles lead, but 'Navahoe' was closing up fast. The wind was drawing through Cherbourg Roads, a few boards were made to get weathering distance of the east end, and 'Britannia' was going out at the one end while 'Navahoe' was about entering at the other, the distance between them being a trifle over two miles. The breeze, which came from the northward by east, was growing, and jib topsails were pulled down when about ten miles off.

Cape May Cup
  1 Britannia X.XX.XX
  2 Navahoe +.36.13

'Britannia' was sailed to keep her opponent fair in her wake, and she might have been made fetch Christchurch head, but Durleston was the landfall, and the leader tacked off the Dorset headland at 10.15, 'Navahoe' following at 10.45. It was a beat hence home with a weather tide, and 'Britannia' at this game made a terrible exhibition of her opponent, weathering the line winner of the Cape May Cup with a lead of 36 mins. 13 secs. The official timing was, 'Britannia' 12 hrs. 57 mins. 19 secs. P.M., 'Navahoe' 1 hr. 33 mins. 32 secs. P.M. It may be said that 'Britannia's' sail-area in the Gold Cup, Brenton Reef, and Cape May races was 10,327 square feet, and the 'Navahoe's' 10,815 square feet, the latter having been clipped to the extent of 270 feet.


HMY Britannia (Royal Cutter Yacht). Builder: D&W Henderson Shipyard Ltd. Launched: 20 April 1893
HMY Britannia (Royal Cutter Yacht).
Builder: D&W Henderson Shipyard Ltd. Launched: 20 April 1893

In summing up this review it may be said there is little reason to doubt that the 'Britannia' was the best all round vessel of the fleet; the 'Valkyrie' was a trifle the quicker in stays and in light breezes, the better vessel to windward, or even on a long close reach, and also in a dead run. In hard winds and plain sailing the 'Satanita's' 10 ft. greater length on the load-line gave her the mastery over the Prince of Wales's cutter, but on any point and in any weather 'Britannia' was equal to lowering the 'Calluna's' colours. The 'Britannia' and 'Navahoe' were desperately close matched whenever the latter could get a broad reach or run and keep the lee rail out of water, but the Prince of Wales's cutter was immeasurably her superior on the all-important point—going to windward. Perfect handling contributed not a little to 'Britannia's' success, and, sailed as she was by John Carter and Mr. W. G. Jameson, it is certain nothing was given away or lost. She had a peerless record in her class—namely, 33 prizes in 43 starts; the gross value of the prizes won, including challenge cups, being in round numbers 2,500£

It must have been highly gratifying to the 'Valkyrie's' designer that the vessel excelled in the very weather and sailing points desired—namely, going to windward and dead running. Her trials with 'Britannia' showed how wonderfully evenly matched the vessels were in moderate weather, and artistic handling was always conspicuous whenever Lord Dunraven's cutter was under a racing flag. 'Valkyrie' made her mark in the short season she had in home waters, her record being 15 prizes in 24 starts, her winnings amounting to 955£

The 'Satanita' was a particularly unlucky boat, and on the Clyde her ill fortune passed into a proverb. After breaking the spell with a victory in Belfast Lough, she, however, scored several notable victories, and it was a great feat to win two events at a Royal Yacht Squadron regatta. Her fastest reaching display was no doubt in the Nore to Dover race, but for a short burst the speed she attained in going from the New Pier, Torquay, to the flagboat outside Hope's Nose has perhaps never been equalled by anything of yacht kind. 'Satanita' was not such a handy boat to get round marks or herring-bone through a crowded roadstead as 'Britannia' and 'Valkyrie,' but Jay is deserving of the highest praise for the able way he sailed his charge. 'Satanita's' winnings included a Queen's Cup and the Albert Cup, and in 36 starts she won 13 prizes, value 760£

Calluna was designed by William Fife III and built at the A. & J. Inglis shipyard for a syndicate of Glaswegian merchants led by Peter Donaldson
The Cutter Yacht Calluna.
designed by William Fife III and built at the A. & J. Inglis shipyard

The 'Calluna' was a disappointing boat; indeed, her designer got into a way at last of calling her 'My unlucky boat,' for which expression there was all-sufficient reason. The best of 'Calluna' perhaps remains to be got out of her, yet she went by fits and starts in a wonderful way, but could rarely maintain her form to a finish. She had very strong opposition in 'Britannia,' 'Valkyrie,' and 'Satanita,' but likely enough she would have been an all-round better boat, and perhaps a real flier, with 2½ ft. less beam and 2½ ft. more load-water length. Her skipper, A. Hogarth, is exceptionally smart in handling a small craft; 'Calluna' was his first charge of the heavy-weight line, and she certainly was not the sort of craft to serve an apprenticeship in. The Clyde cutter managed to win 10 prizes in 36 starts, but it was only on two occasions that she sailed home in the van.

To small details in a racing vessel's outfit the Americans give much more consideration than British yachtsmen think necessary. Many a wrinkle might have been picked up, however, in making a careful study of the 'Navahoe's' outfit, and there is no doubt that much of the gear and ironwork in English yachts is too heavy. 'Navahoe's' failing was want of stability, and this was found out on the other side before she set out from home. Her iron skin was not in her favour, and we, on this side, have yet to learn that a vessel can be properly laid on a wind when steered with a wheel. The 'Navahoe' started 18 times and won 6 prizes. Including the Brenton Reef Challenge Cup, her gross winnings amounted to 445l.

The record of broken masts and other spars in connection with first-class vessels was a remarkable one. It is likely that poor quality wood brought about the majority of the breakages; in fact, last season's spars were a rank bad lot. The case was different in 'Thistle's' year, that vessel having a really splendid lot of sticks. It may be said that the 'Britannia' had no fewer than three masts in her forty-three racing essays, one topmast, two bowsprits, and one gaff; 'Calluna' two masts, one main boom, and one gaff; 'Valkyrie' one mast, one topmast, one boom, and one bowsprit; and 'Satanita' one bowsprit and one boom.